Secondary spring systems
Rolling lobe air spring
Rolling lobe air springs are ideally suited for tram and low-floor bogies
with extreme narrow constructed space.
Belted air spring
Belted air springs are used mainly for bolster bogies. They have
maximum load-bearing capacities. Combined with an additional
spring the belted air springs are also used in bolsterless bogies of
high-speed trains and in urban and metro system.
Unrestricted air spring
Unrestricted air springs are suited for bolsterless bogies due to high
lateral deformability. They are also used for modern bogies which
find application in high-speed trains and in urban and metro systems.
In case of defect of the air supply or leakage of the air spring the function is taken over by additional spring mechanisms.
Horizontal deflections in this case are taken over by sliding plates on which the air spring plate sinks down.
Vertical suspension as well as partially transverse suspension is taken over by rubber springs acting as additional spring.
The secondary spring system consists of the air spring bellows, an integrated additional and emergency spring and customer/application specific